Dr. Ron’s Research Review – August 7, 2013

© 2013

This week’s research review focuses on the trade-offs between cancer, aging and other diseases.

The potential gain in life expectancy which could result from the complete elimination of mortality from cancer in the U.S. would not exceed 3 years if one were to consider cancer independently of other causes of death.

One study's analyses revealed significant negative correlations between cancer and other diseases suggesting stronger population effects of cancer eradication.  (Yashin, Ukraintseva et al. 2009)

Some experimental aging studies suggest that there may be a trade-off between cancer and aging as well as to the trade-off(s) between cancer and other diseases, which may be linked to the differential intensity of apoptosis.

One study found a reduction in cancer risk among old (80+) men with stroke and in risk of acute coronary heart disease (ACHD) among men aged 50+ with cancer in the Framingham Study. They also found an increase in ACHD and stroke among individuals with cancer, and a reduction in cancer risk among women with AD in the NLTCS. (Ukraintseva, Arbeev et al. 2010)

Dr. Ron


Articles

Trade-offs between cancer and other diseases: do they exist and influence longevity?

         (Ukraintseva, Arbeev et al. 2010) Download

Relationships between aging, disease risks, and longevity are not yet well understood. For example, joint increases in cancer risk and total survival observed in many human populations and some experimental aging studies may be linked to a trade-off between cancer and aging as well as to the trade-off(s) between cancer and other diseases, and their relative impact is not clear. While the former trade-off (between cancer and aging) received broad attention in aging research, the latter one lacks respective studies, although its understanding is important for developing optimal strategies of increasing both longevity and healthy life span. In this paper, we explore the possibility of trade-offs between risks of cancer and selected major disorders. First, we review current literature suggesting that the trade-offs between cancer and other diseases may exist and be linked to the differential intensity of apoptosis. Then we select relevant disorders for the analysis (acute coronary heart disease [ACHD], stroke, asthma, and Alzheimer disease [AD]) and calculate the risk of cancer among individuals with each of these disorders, and vice versa, using the Framingham Study (5209 individuals) and the National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS) (38,214 individuals) data. We found a reduction in cancer risk among old (80+) men with stroke and in risk of ACHD among men (50+) with cancer in the Framingham Study. We also found an increase in ACHD and stroke among individuals with cancer, and a reduction in cancer risk among women with AD in the NLTCS. The manifestation of trade-offs between risks of cancer and other diseases thus depended on sex, age, and study population. We discuss factors modulating the potential trade-offs between major disorders in populations, e.g., disease treatments. Further study is needed to clarify possible impact of such trade-offs on longevity.


Trade-off between cancer and aging: what role do other diseases play? Evidence from experimental and human population studies

         (Yashin, Ukraintseva et al. 2009) Download

The potential gain in life expectancy which could result from the complete elimination of mortality from cancer in the U.S. would not exceed 3 years if one were to consider cancer independently of other causes of death. In this paper, we review evidence of trade-offs between cancer and aging as well as between cancer and other diseases, which, if taken into account, may substantially increase estimates of gain in life expectancy resulting from cancer eradication. We also used the Multiple Causes of Death (MCD) data to evaluate correlations among mortalities from cancer and other major disorders including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's diseases, and asthma. Our analyses revealed significant negative correlations between cancer and other diseases suggesting stronger population effects of cancer eradication. Possible mechanisms of the observed dependencies and emerging perspectives of using dependent competing risks models for evaluating the effects of reduction of mortality from cancer on life expectancy are discussed.

References

Ukraintseva, S. V., K. G. Arbeev, et al. (2010). "Trade-offs between cancer and other diseases: do they exist and influence longevity?" Rejuvenation Res 13(4): 387-96. [PMID: 20426618]

Yashin, A. I., S. V. Ukraintseva, et al. (2009). "Trade-off between cancer and aging: what role do other diseases play? Evidence from experimental and human population studies." Mech Ageing Dev 130(1-2): 98-104. [PMID: 18452970]