Dr. Ron’s Research Review – November 25, 2015

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This week’s research review focuses on vinegar for weight loss.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 78 overweight women that received pomegranate vinegar (PV) beverage (1.5 g acetic acid and 700 μg ellagic acid/200 mL/day) or a placebo for 8 weeks.
Pomegranate vinegar reduced visceral adipose tissue, as measured by computed tomography (P = 0.037), and enhanced AMPK phosphorylation (P = 0.013) compared with the placebo group. The PV tended to suppress downstream gene expression, such as that of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and acetyl coenzyme carboxylase, in adipose tissue.
Together, these data suggest that pomegranate vinegar is an excellent AMPK activator and may exert beneficial effects on adiposity. (Park et al., 2014)

Four men and seven women (aged 40 –72 years) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized crossover study with a 3- to 5-day washout period between treatments. Participants followed a standardized meal plan for 2 days, consuming either 2 Tbsp apple cider vinegar or water at bedtime with 1 oz cheese (8 g protein, 1 g carbohydrate, and 1.5 g fat). The standardized meal plan was designed to reflect the individual’s typical diet.
Fasting glucose was reduced 0.15 mmol/l (2%) and 0.26 mmol/l (4%) for the placebo and vinegar treatments, respectively (time-by-treatment effect, P = 0.033). Closer examination of the data revealed that the vinegar treatment was particularly effective for the participants with a typical fasting glucose >7.2 mmol/l; in these individuals (n = 6), fasting glucose was reduced 6% compared with a reduction of 0.7% in those participants with a typical fasting glucose <7.2 mmol/l (n = 5).  (White and Johnston, 2007)

 

Dr. Ron


 

Articles

Pomegranate vinegar beverage reduces visceral fat accumulation in association with AMPK activation in overweight women: A double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial
            (Park et al., 2014) Download
Abstract Recent studies on animals have suggested that vinegar consumption may confer an antiobesity effect through the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. However, mechanisms of action in humans remain largely unknown. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed to examine whether a pomegranate vinegar (PV) beverage alleviates adiposity in overweight subjects, with emphasis on AMPK activation. Seventy-eight overweight women (BMI ≥ 25) were randomly assigned to receive either PV (1.5 g acetic acid and 700 μg ellagic acid/200 mL/day) or a placebo for 8 weeks. The PV reduced visceral adipose tissue, as measured by computed tomography (P = 0.037), and enhanced AMPK phosphorylation (P = 0.013) compared with the placebo group. The PV tended to suppress downstream gene expression, such as that of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and acetyl coenzyme carboxylase, in adipose tissue. Together, these data suggest that PV is an excellent AMPK activator and may exert beneficial effects on adiposity.

Vinegar ingestion at bedtime moderates waking glucose concentrations in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.
            (White and Johnston, 2007) Download
Four men and seven women (aged 40 –72 years) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized crossover study with a 3- to 5-day washout period between treatments. Participants followed a standardized meal plan for 2 days, consuming either 2 Tbsp apple cider vinegar or water at bedtime with 1 oz cheese (8 g protein, 1 g carbohydrate, and 1.5 g fat). The standardized meal plan was designed to reflect the individual’s typical diet. Fasting glucose was reduced 0.15 mmol/l (2%) and 0.26 mmol/l (4%) for the placebo and vinegar treatments, respectively (time-by-treatment effect, P = 0.033). Closer examination of the data revealed that the vinegar treatment was particularly effective for the participants with a typical fasting glucose >7.2 mmol/l; in these individuals (n = 6), fasting glucose was reduced 6% compared with a reduction of 0.7% in those participants with a typical fasting glucose <7.2 mmol/l (n = 5).


 

References

Park, Ji Eun, et al. (2014), ‘Pomegranate vinegar beverage reduces visceral fat accumulation in association with AMPK activation in overweight women: A double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial’, Journal of Functional Foods, 8 (0), 274-81. PubMedID:
White, AM and CS Johnston (2007), ‘Vinegar ingestion at bedtime moderates waking glucose concentrations in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.’, Diabetes Care, 30 (11), 2814-15. PubMedID: 17712024