Dr. Ron’s Research Review – January 25, 2017

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This week’s research review focuses on vitamin D for vertigo

A study included 20 (64.5%) women and 11 (35.5%) men with a mean age of 49.78 years (range, 23-75 years). During an attack a higher prevalence of decreased serum Vitamin D is less than 20 ng/ml, was determined (93.5% versus 38.7%). Very low levels of 25(OH)-D seem to be associated with recurrence of BPPV. (Kahraman et al., 2016)

Low bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency was found in patients with benign positional paroxysmal vertigo. (Talaat et al., 2015)
A study included patients with BPPV and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level ≤10 ng/ml. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was evaluated twice, on recruitment into the study group and 3 months after commencing vitamin D therapy. Subgroup (I) included 28 subjects who disclosed elevation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level; improvement ≥10 ng/ml. Subgroup (II) included 65 patients who disclosed elevation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels <10 ng/ml. The study group was followed up for 18 months in order to observe the recurrence of BPPV. The number of subjects who had recurrence of BPPV in subgroup (I) was 4 (14%) versus 28 subjects (43%) in subgroup (II). The mean values for recurrent attacks/subject in subgroups (I) & (II) were 0.18, and 0.66 attack/subject respectively; these differences between both subgroups were of high statistical significance (p<0.01). The Odds Ratio for development of recurrence of BPPV in subjects with severe vitamin D deficiency was 4.54 (95% CI: 1.41-14.58, p<0.01). The relapse attacks of BPPV affected both ears irrespective of the ear showing the original BPPV attack.  This study indicates that improvement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels is associated with substantial decrease in recurrence of BPPV. (Talaat et al., 2016)

A study of vitamin D (50,000 IU cholecalciferol weekly for two months) in benign positional paroxysmal vertigo found that the intensity of BPPV decreased significantly as compared with control (P=0.001 for both groups) but at endpoint, the intensity of BPPV aggravated and regressed to the baseline value in vitamin D deficient non-treated group (P=0.001) whereas, in vitamin D treated group, improvement of BPPV remained stable and unchanged over the study period.  This study indicates that correction of vitamin D deficiency in BPPV provides additional benefit to rehabilitation therapy (Epley maneuver) regarding duration of improvement. These findings suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in recurrent BPPV. (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2016b)
In a second study, both groups received Epley rehabilitation therapy one session per week for 4 weeks but the treatment group received an additional supplement of 50.000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) weekly for two months to achieve serum 25-OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml and the study patients were followed-up for 6 months.  Twenty-seven patients were allocated to each group. At baseline, serum 25-OHD was similar (10.7±2.3 vs 11.41±1.9, P=0.23). At month 2, serum 25-OHD in the treatment group increased significantly to ≥ 30 ng/ ml, whereas serum 25-OHD in the control group remained unchanged (34.2±3.3 vs 10.6 10.6±2.2 ng/ml, P=0.001). During the follow-up period, attacks of BPPV in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with the control group (14.8% vs 96.3% OR= 0.18, P=0.001). The findings of this study indicate that the normalization of serum vitamin D significantly reduces BPPV recurrences. (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2016a)

 

Dr. Ron


 

Articles

Calcium Homeostasis During Attack and Remission in Patients With Idiopathic Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.
            (Kahraman et al., 2016) Download
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate changes in calcium metabolism in patients with idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) on initial presentation and at the follow-up visit. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:  The study comprised a total of 31 patients aged greater than 18 years who presented at the otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic of our hospital, newly diagnosed as idiopathic BPPV based on the history compatible with BPPV and positive provocative maneuver (either Dix-Hallpike or Roll test). The first blood sample was obtained on the day of initial presentation when the patient was found to have active unilateral BPPV. After 6 months, a blood sample was again drawn in accordance with the procedure. Blood samples were analyzed for data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-D), total calcium, parathormone and ionized calcium on initial presentation, and at the follow-up visit. RESULTS:  The patients comprised 20 (64.5%) women and 11 (35.5%) men with a mean age of 49.78 years (range, 23-75 years). During an attack a higher prevalence of decreased serum Vitamin D is less than 20 ng/ml, was determined (93.5% versus 38.7%). There were statistical differences between the Vitamin D values, parathormone, and corrected by pH ionized calcium in both periods (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:  A statistically significant association was determined between Vitamin D and calcium metabolism in patients with idiopathic BPPV. It can be considered that Vitamin D deficiency and decreased ionized Ca level may be a risk for BPPV, not only in patients with osteoporosis but also in all patients. Very low levels of 25(OH)-D seem to be associated with recurrence of BPPV. The recurrences might possibly be prevented with supplementary Vitamin D especially in those with recurrent idiopathic BPPV but further studies would be necessary to determine this.

Influence of supplemental vitamin D on intensity of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A longitudinal clinical study.
            (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2016b) Download
BACKGROUND:  Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is linked to vitamin D deficiency. This clinical trial aimed to determine the influence of vitamin D supplementation on intensity of BPPV. METHODS:  The study population was selected consecutively and the diagnosis of BPPV was made by history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Intensity of BPVV was assessed based on VAS score (0-10). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and levels < 20 ng/ml was considered a deficiency. All patients received rehabilitation treatment using Epley's maneuver one time per week for one month. Serum 25-OHD deficient patients were classified as treated and non-treated groups (rehabilitation with or without 50.000 IU cholecalciferol weekly for two months).The results of treatment were compared with vitamin D sufficient group as control. All patients were followed-up for 6 months. RESULTS:  After two months of treatment, in both vitamin D treated and non-treated groups the intensity of BPPV decreased significantly as compared with control (P=0.001 for both groups) but at endpoint, the intensity of BPPV aggravated and regressed to the baseline value in vitamin D deficient non-treated group (P=0.001) whereas, in vitamin D treated group, improvement of BPPV remained stable and unchanged over the study period. CONCLUSION:  This study indicates that correction of vitamin D deficiency in BPPV provides additional benefit to rehabilitation therapy (Epley maneuver) regarding duration of improvement. These findings suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in recurrent BPPV.

The effect of serum vitamin D normalization in preventing recurrences of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A case-control study.
            (Sheikhzadeh et al., 2016a) Download
BACKGROUND:  Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a condition with recurrent attacks in a significant proportion of patients. The present case- control study was conducted to assess the influence of serum vitamin D normalization on recurrent attacks of vitamin D deficient patients. METHODS:  Diagnosis of BPPV was made based on history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and a levels of < 20 ng/ml was considered a deficiency of vitamin D. Inclusion criteria were as follows: history of recurrent attacks and serum 25-OHD<20.ng/ml. While the patients with history of trauma, surgery and chronic systemic diseases were excluded. The patients were classified into two groups: treatment and control, intermittently. Both groups received Epley rehabilitation therapy one session per week for 4 weeks but the treatment group received an additional supplement of 50.000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) weekly for two months to achieve serum 25-OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml and the study patients were followed-up for 6 months. RESULTS:  Twenty-seven patients were allocated to each group. At baseline, serum 25-OHD was similar (10.7±2.3 vs 11.41±1.9, P=0.23). At month 2, serum 25-OHD in the treatment group increased significantly to ≥ 30 ng/ ml, whereas serum 25-OHD in the control group remained unchanged (34.2±3.3 vs 10.6 10.6±2.2 ng/ml, P=0.001). During the follow-up period, attacks of BPPV in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with the control group (14.8% vs 96.3% OR= 0.18, P=0.001). CONCLUSION:  The findings of this study indicate that the normalization of serum vitamin D significantly reduces BPPV recurrences.


 

Low bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency in patients with benign positional paroxysmal vertigo.
            (Talaat et al., 2015) Download
Several studies indicated the association between benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) with osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency implying that abnormal calcium metabolism may underlie BPPV. The aim of the present study is to confirm the correlation between BPPV and both decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and vitamin D deficiency. The study group included 80 patients with idiopathic BPPV (52 females, 28 males), with age range 31-71 years (47.6 ± 9.1). The patients were divided into two groups; recurrent BPPV group including 36 subjects and non-recurrent group including 44 subjects. The control group included 100 healthy volunteers with age and gender distribution similar to the study group. All the subjects in the study were examined using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess BMD, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D for vitamin D assessment. The accepted normal levels were T-score > -1, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D > 30 ng/ml. Twenty-six (26 %) subjects showed abnormal T-score in the control group; 26 (59 %) in the non-recurrent BPPV and 22 (61 %) in the recurrent BPPV group. Chi square test showed significant difference between the control group and both BPPV groups. The control group had significantly higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than the BPPV subgroups (p < 0.05). Moreover, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly lower in the recurrent BPPV than it was in the non-recurrent subgroup (p < 0.05). The results of the current study associate between reduced BMD and development/recurrence of BPPV. Moreover, low levels of vitamin D were related to development of BPPV while very low levels were associated with recurrence of BPPV. The co-occurrence of two morbidities is not by itself supportive of a relationship, but the cumulating studies correlating between BPPV and both vitamin D deficiency and low BMD indicate the investigation and treatment of those disorders in cases with recurrent BPPV.

Reduction of recurrence rate of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo by treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency.
            (Talaat et al., 2016) Download
OBJECTIVE:  Several studies correlated between vitamin D deficiency and the development, and the recurrence of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV), but none of them proved that treatment of vitamin D deficiency would reduce the recurrence rate of BPPV. This study aims to detect the effect of treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency on the recurrence rate of BPPV. METHODS:  The inclusion criteria of the study group were: (1) Unilateral, idiopathic, posterior canal BPPV with no history suggestive of secondary BPPV and (2) 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level ≤10 ng/ml. All subjects enrolled in the current study underwent detailed clinical history, audiovestibular evaluation consisting of pure-tone audiometry, Immittancemetry, Videonystugmography, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 assessment, and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Vitamin D therapy was prescribed for the study group. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was evaluated twice, on recruitment into the study group and 3 months after commencing vitamin D therapy. According to the results of the second evaluation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, the study group was subdivided into two subgroups: Subgroup (I): including 28 subjects who disclosed elevation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level; improvement ≥10 ng/ml. Subgroup (II): including 65 patients who disclosed elevation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels <10 ng/ml. The study group was followed up for 18 months in order to observe the recurrence of BPPV. RESULTS:  The differences between both study subgroups (I) & (II) regarding age, sex distribution, and bone mineral density were insignificant. The number of subjects who had recurrence of BPPV in subgroup (I) was 4 (14%) versus 28 subjects (43%) in subgroup (II). The mean values for recurrent attacks/subject in subgroups (I) & (II) were 0.18, and 0.66 attack/subject respectively; these differences between both subgroups were of high statistical significance (p<0.01). The Odds Ratio for development of recurrence of BPPV in subjects with severe vitamin D deficiency was 4.54 (95% CI: 1.41-14.58, p<0.01). The relapse attacks of BPPV affected both ears irrespective of the ear showing the original BPPV attack. CONCLUSION:  The present study indicates that improvement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels is associated with substantial decrease in recurrence of BPPV.

 

References

Kahraman, SS, et al. (2016), ‘Calcium Homeostasis During Attack and Remission in Patients With Idiopathic Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.’, Otol Neurotol, 37 (9), 1388-92. PubMed: 27525708
Sheikhzadeh, M, et al. (2016a), ‘The effect of serum vitamin D normalization in preventing recurrences of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A case-control study.’, Caspian J Intern Med, 7 (3), 173-77. PubMed: 27757201
Sheikhzadeh, M, et al. (2016b), ‘Influence of supplemental vitamin D on intensity of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A longitudinal clinical study.’, Caspian J Intern Med, 7 (2), 93-98. PubMed: 27386060
Talaat, HS, et al. (2015), ‘Low bone mineral density and vitamin D deficiency in patients with benign positional paroxysmal vertigo.’, Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 272 (9), 2249-53. PubMed: 24973969
Talaat, HS, et al. (2016), ‘Reduction of recurrence rate of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo by treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency.’, Auris Nasus Larynx, 43 (3), 237-41. PubMed: 26386496