Dr. Ron’s Research Review – September 20, 2017

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This week’s research review focuses on probiotics and glutathione.

Only a few studies that measure glutathione with probiotics in human studies: an older one on ME-3 (Lactobacillus fermentum) and a newer one on Lactobacillus casei and inulin.

A study assessed synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei  and inulin) influence on oxidative stress parameters on healthy volunteers (n = 32) for 7 weeks. The subjects were divided into women group (n = 16) and men group (n = 16) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. The synbiotic resulted in a significant decrease in MDA (p < 0.01), H2O2 (p < 0.01), and GSSG concentrations (p < 0.05) as compared with the control groups and significant increase in the concentrations of GSHt (p < 0.001), GSH (p < 0.01), and -SH group content (p < 0.05) versus control. (Kleniewska et al., 2016)

Two 3-week healthy volunteer trials were performed. Open placebo controlled (OPC) study participants (n = 21) consumed either goat milk or by L. fermentum ME-3 fermented goat milk. Double blind randomised placebo controlled (DBRP) study participants (n = 24) received either capsules with L. fermentum ME-3 (daily of dose 9.2 CFU) or placebo capsules. Fecal recovery of ME-3 was documented by molecular methods only in fermented milk group, however the significant improvement of blood TAA (Total Antioxidative Activity) and TAS (Total Antioxidative Status) indices was seen both in case of fermented goat milk and capsules, yet glutathione re-ox ratio values decreased only in case of fermented by ME-3 goat milk. (Songisepp et al., 2005)

A third study determined the effects of multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on metabolic status among pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. After 12 weeks of intervention, compared to the placebo group, the pregnant women who consumed probiotic capsule had significantly decreased serum insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and QUICK. In addition, changes in serum triglycerides levels, hs-CRP, plasma nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in supplemented women were significantly different from those of the placebo group. However, after controlling for baseline levels, age and BMI at the study baseline, the changes in plasma GSH were not significantly different between the groups.  (Jamilian et al., 2016)

Dr. Ron


Articles

 

Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Pregnant Women: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
            (Jamilian et al., 2016) Download
BACKGROUND:  Limited data is available on the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. The current study was carried out to determine the effects of multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on metabolic status among pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. METHODS:  A randomized clinical trial was conducted among 60 pregnant women aged 18-37 years. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 30) received multispecies probiotic supplements containing three probiotic bacteria spices Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum (2 × 109 CFU/g each) and group B (n = 30) received placebo from 9 weeks of gestation for a duration of 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks of intervention to determine metabolic profiles, inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of oxidative stress. RESULTS:  After 12 weeks of intervention, compared to the placebo group, the pregnant women who consumed probiotic capsule had significantly decreased serum insulin concentrations (-1.5 ± 4.8 vs. +1.3 ± 5.2 µIU/mL, P = 0.03), the homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.3 ± 0.9 vs. +0.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.04), the homeostasis model of assessment-estimated b cell function (HOMA-B) (-7.2 ± 23.1 vs. +5.3 ± 22.6, P = 0.03) and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (+0.01 ± 0.05 vs. -0.01 ± 0.02, P = 0.03). In addition, changes in serum triglycerides levels (-14.7 ± 46.5 vs. +37.3 ± 74.2 mg/dL, P = 0.002), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-1.0 ± 2.6 vs. +1.7 ± 4.3 mg/L, P = 0.004), plasma nitric oxide (NO) (+6.8 ± 9.3 vs. -4.7 ± 7.4 µmol/L, P < 0.001), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+171.9 ± 187.6 vs. -51.9 ± 208.8 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations (+34.3 ± 71.6 vs. -36.9 ± 108.3 µmol/L, P = 0.004) in supplemented women were significantly different from those of the placebo group. However, after controlling for baseline levels, age and BMI at the study baseline, the changes in plasma GSH were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION:  Overall, probiotic supplementation for 12 weeks among pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy had beneficial effects on markers of insulin metabolism, triglycerides, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.


 

The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma.
            (Kleniewska et al., 2016) Download
The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes.

Evaluation of the functional efficacy of an antioxidative probiotic in healthy volunteers.
            (Songisepp et al., 2005) Download
BACKGROUND:  In persons without clinical symptom it is difficult to assess an impact of probiotics regarding its effect on health. We evaluated the functional efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 in healthy volunteers by measuring the influence of two different formulations on intestinal lactoflora, fecal recovery of the probiotic strain and oxidative stress markers of blood and urine after 3 weeks consumption. METHODS:  Two 3-week healthy volunteer trials were performed. Open placebo controlled (OPC) study participants (n = 21) consumed either goat milk or by L. fermentum ME-3 fermented goat milk (daily dose 11.8 log CFU (Colony Forming Units). Double blind randomised placebo controlled (DBRP) study participants (n = 24) received either capsules with L. fermentum ME-3 (daily of dose 9.2 CFU) or placebo capsules. The faecal lactoflora composition, faecal ME-3 recovery, effect of the consumption on intestinal lactoflora, and oxidative stress markers of blood (total antioxidative activity; total antioxidative status and glutathione red-ox ratio) was measured. RESULTS:  ME-3 was well tolerated and a significant increase in total faecal lactobacilli yet no predominance of ME-3 was detected in all study groups. Faecal recovery of ME-3 was documented by molecular methods only in fermented milk group, however the significant improvement of blood TAA (Total Antioxidative Activity) and TAS (Total Antioxidative Status) indices was seen both in case of fermented goat milk and capsules", yet glutathione re-ox ratio values decreased only in case of fermented by ME-3 goat milk. CONCLUSION:  The functional efficacy of both consumed formulations of an antioxidative probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 is proved by the increase of the intestinal lactobacilli counts providing putative defence against enteric infections and by reduction of the oxidative stress indices of blood and urine of healthy volunteers. In non-diseased host the probiotic health claims can be assessed by improvement of some measurable laboratory indices of well-established physiological functions of host, e.g. markers of antioxidative defence system.

 

References

Jamilian, M, et al. (2016), ‘Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Pregnant Women: a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.’, Arch Iran Med, 19 (10), 687-82. PubMed: 27743432
Kleniewska, P, et al. (2016), ‘The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma.’, Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016 1340903. PubMed: 27066188
Songisepp, E, et al. (2005), ‘Evaluation of the functional efficacy of an antioxidative probiotic in healthy volunteers.’, Nutr J, 4 22. PubMed: 16080791